Sis (Figure 4B and S4A, B). ASH1L Cadherin-15 Proteins Gene ID knockdown substantially compromised the in vitro growth and clonogenic activity of HSPCs transformed by MLL oncogenes, but didn’t affect cells transformed by a non-MLL oncogene (Figure 4E). In transplantation assays, MLL-AF10 transformed HSPCs knocked down for ASH1L showed a substantial impairment in their ability to induce leukemia as evidenced by a marked increase in disease latency and lowered penetrance (Figure 4F). The part of ASH1L in MLL-mediated leukemogenesis was further investigated in human leukemia cells. Knockdown of ASH1L resulted in decreased HOXA9 expression in MLLrearranged (MLLr) leukemia cell lines (Figure 5A), which correlated with lowered growth in methylcellulose and liquid cultures, whereas non-MLLr leukemia cells had been unaffected (Figure 5B, C). Xenotransplantation studies showed that knockdown of ASH1L markedly impaired bone marrow engraftment efficiency of MV41 cells in NSG mice by more than 90 compared to control (sh-Luc) cells at 4 weeks (Figure 5D). Similarly, xenotransplantation research of key MLLr AMLs showed that knockdown of ASH1L substantially reduced engraftment efficiency ( 80) compared to manage at 10 weeks Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule Proteins custom synthesis post-transplant (Figure 5E). Therefore, ASH1L is essential for MLL oncogene-induced leukemogenesis. Decreased H3K36me3 Increases Recruitment of LEDGF and MLL to Chromatin In protein rotein ChIP assays, LEDGF linked preferentially with H3K36me2, which is essential for MLL-mediated oncogenesis, and weakly with H3K36me3 (Figure 1D). The possible contribution of H3K36 tri-methylation to MLL-mediated transformation was assessed by knocking down SETD2, the only recognized histone H3K36me3 methyltransferaseAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptCancer Discov. Author manuscript; readily available in PMC 2017 July 01.Zhu et al.Page(21). SETD2 knockdown in MLL-AF9-transformed HSPCs (Figure 6A) lowered international levels of H3K36me3 (Figure 6B). In comparison with ASH1L knockdown, SETD2 knockdown had minor effects on Hoxa9 gene expression (Figure 6A), and clonogenic activity of MLLtransformed HSPCs (Figure 6C). SETD2 plays an essential function in keeping genome stability (32), which may perhaps account for partially lowered leukemia cell growth. ChIP assays showed that SETD2 knockdown resulted in reduction of H3K36me3 levels at MLL target genes (Figure 6D). In contrast, H3K36me2 was elevated, which correlated with elevated LEDGF and MLL occupancy, further supporting the important role of H3K36me2 in MLL/LEDGF recruitment. Fusion MLL was maintained at essential target gene promoters in SETD2 knockdown cells (Figure 6D). Thus, SETD2 and H3K36 tri-methylation don’t directly regulate MLL oncogene-induced leukemogenesis. KDM2A Antagonizes MLL Oncogene Induced Leukemogenesis The part of reduced H3K36me2 via forced demethylation was also assessed in MLLmediated transformation. A number of families of histone demethylases demethylate H3K36me2 in mammalian cells (1). Amongst them, the KDM2 family is of distinct interest given that genetic evidence indicates antagonism between ASH1 and dKDM2 in Drosophila (33). In humans, two paralogs (KDM2A and KDM2B) preferentially demethylate H3K36me2, and repress transcription (1, 34). Over-expression of KDM2A, but not KDM2B, in MLL-AF10-transformed HSPCs resulted in decreased Hoxa9 expression (Figure 7A and S5A). KDM2A over-expression also resulted in decreased H3K36me2 but not H3K36me3 levels at MLL target genes, and reduced occupancy of LEDGF and WT MLL, but not fu.